.... to overstand is to comprehend a concept and why it is the way it is.
Those of you that have been following my blog know that I believe that the golden age of reggae was the 70s and that reggae has always been a vehicle and voice to express injustice and raise consciousness. This is something that is again becoming stronger in the eyes of the new crop of reggae artists. I 'll come to that latter.
Understanding and Overstanding
To raise consciousness is to 'Overstand' What does this mean and how does this relate to reggae? Well, one definition comes from the Rastafari philosophy where everyone is equal under god hence the term 'I n I'. As such, any concept or idea created by us cannot be superior to us. Therefore, to be aware and correctly comprehend a concept or idea in the right context is to 'overstand' it.
Being able to understand or overstand does not in itself mean that you will be liberated from whatever struggle you are engaged with.
So let's use an example, debt. We have all at some time played the role of debtor i.e. owe someone or some corporation money. We understand that borrowing can help us achieve things quickly and that we will have to pay interest on what we borrowed. We also understand that we can also borrow more.
Now, if we don't have a certain level of overstanding we are going to have issues. For example, we need to overstand that we have given a certain level of power to the lender over our destiny if we do not abide by their terms and conditions and that lending to us was not an act of charity but an un-emotional business enterprise to make a profit that will drive their behaviour. So to overstand is to comprehend a concept and why it is the way it is.
So back to music. Something that roots reggae or conscious reggae has been doing since reggae music began is expressing the trials and tribulations of life and also raising awareness of why life is more difficult than it should be, overstanding. This was the driving force of the golden age of reggae in the 70s and the reasons for wanting to spread those messages still exist today. However, reggae is now a genre with multiple sub-genres some more popular than others.
Roots Reggae Revivalists
Reggae having many sub-genres a testament to the versatility and creativity of the music and the artists. The dominant force over the last couple of decades has been Dancehall which generally has a completely different vibe and message to roots reggae. But in a world where people are crying out for change in the way things are done and music that epitomises this message, it is conscious reggae music that can satisfy this demand.
The last few years have seen the rise of young Jamaican artists referred to as 'Roots Reggae Revivalists'.
The shining light of this movement is Chronixx but it includes Jah9, Protoje, Dre Island, Kabaka Pyramid, Jesse Royal and others. These 'revivalists' play consciousness raising reggae increasing awareness and overstanding to an ever-increasing audience.
The reggae foundation artists and legends who have always continued to express conscious messages in their music will doubtless disagree that roots reggae ever went away or needing reviving. But like most changes and trends in the world, they are led by the young generation and it seems that uplifting and spiritual lyrics are what many seek.
The young revivalists have taken the core roots reggae vibe and added their own modern twists. This mix of conscious lyrics and progressive roots reggae riddims seems to be taking them to international stardom. This can only be good for reggae music, having rising talents writing great music and spreading uplifting and positive messages across the world.
The more overstanding there is the more change there will be.
'every genre needs an icon or icons that can drive the music forward on an international level, a symbol that transcends the music.'
The return of Buju Banton to Jamaica and the success of the 'Long Walk to Freedom' tour has shown that reggae still loves an icon. Someone who represents the core struggle that created reggae music. At the moment, I believe there is a global vacuum but for how much longer.
Mark Anthony Myrie later to become Buju Banton, was born in 1973 in the Kingston, Jamaica. His music career started when he was 13 performing on sound systems. He was destined for success and eventually released his first single 'The ruler'.
Coming from a social background that was typical of a hungry musician and which underpinned the original message of reggae music, Buju had forthright views that he was not afraid to express in his music. This led to controversy after the release of some of his works like 'Love Me Browning' which touched the controversial topic of skin hue and 'Boom Bye Bye' which contained homophobic lyrics. The latter attracting worldwide attention and causing considerable damage to his international career. However, this did not halt his progress.
Buju transformed himself from dancehall king to embrace the teachings of Rastafari in the 1990s. However, such was his talent that his success increased even more. One of his hit singles "Murderer," sung over a Mafia and Fluxy built riddim, was inspired by the murder of his friend Panhead which reflected the violence in Jamaica at the time. He went on to win Grammys for the best reggae album in 2009 for 'Rasta Got Soul' and 2011 for 'Before the Dawn'.
Buju in Concert
Everything came to an abrupt halt in 2011 when Buju was convicted in the US and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. This could easily have been the end of his career not just because of the time away from the music scene but had Buju lost that magic touch? Well, the Long Walk to Freedom tour has put that notion to bed. His performances have had critical acclaim, Buju is Back!
Reggae has gone global but in this new wave of reggae popularity, it is driven by local preferences. Each reggae market has its own flag bearer, artists or bands that deliver the local brand of reggae music their followers want. This is great for the diversity of sound and creativity of reggae but, every genre needs an icon or icons that can drive the music forward on an international level, a symbol that transcends the music.
This is no mean feat. Reggae was blessed by the presence of the likes of Bob Marley and Peter Tosh. Even now if you travel to the outer reaches of the world it is likely that their image or name will be instantly recognisable. These are the heights that the current reggae stars must try to attain.
There are some great new reggae artists who may one day turn out to be global icons Chronixx comes to mind. But is the mantle of global reggae icon something that Buju Banton can attain. He has a huge following and there is a lot of international attention at the moment.
Maybe this is his time we will have to wait and see. But one thing is for sure, whoever it is, they will have the support of all lovers of reggae music.
"Sending your song for review is like auditioning for X Factor"
You have done all the hard work. Writing and composing the song, recording and mixing and now it's ready for distribution. You are proud of your creation and so should everyone else. So, you send it out to blogs and publications for a music review.
This is where the indie artist has to realize that they are now in almost the same position as if auditioning for X Factor. There is no guarantee that the 'judges' i.e. the reviewers are going to see your creation in the same light.
The feedback you receive may be encouraging or it may be negative and not presented in a way that is very palatable either. What you do next is important to your future development and can damage or grow the following and fanbase you have worked hard to build up.
In this blog article, I'll look at negative reviews as these are the ones that need to be carefully managed and are the ones that lead to a better understanding of your music. Assuming the review is from a rational source and not a social media troll (although it may feel that way).
How to Turn Bad Reviews into a Positive Experience
Bad reviews can cut deep. So initially, let it out! Get upset, angry or whatever it makes you feel. You need to go through this in order to end up with a positive experience and be in a position to re-evaluate your creation.
Don't take the bait. I have found it best not to make any comment about negative music reviews while you're still in the hurt phase as this can be the period when you say something you may regret. If you do reply be polite as this is just one person's view.
Bad reviews really can be a learning experience. I have had many and at the start, you give it the 'they don't know what the f@ck they're talking about'. But after I let the hurt subside a little I take a look at the song again. Putting aside purely personal dislikes, I often find that there is something in the criticism and this is what should be taken away and used to improve future productions.
Everybody's tastes are different. All music is such a personal thing and likes and dislikes vary widely. This is something I have come to terms with long ago. It should be easier for you to accept that someone just doesn't like your style of music because there will always be someone that loves it.
Bad publicity is better than no publicity. This is a saying that has been around for a long time and makes even more sense in this social media algorithm driven world. One of the things that help with Google ranking is backlinks (links between websites). Sending out reviews and getting them published with a link to your websites helps with SEO. So even if you receive a bad review you can have the last laugh by knowing they are helping with your ranking.
It's your music so play it if you want to. At the end of the day, it's your music, your creation, so be proud. Rise above any criticism, learn any lessons and make any action you take a positive one. A bad review doesn't mean all your music is bad.
Take a lesson from the world of literature. Best selling author James Patterson became the Guinness World Record holder as the author with the most No. 1 New York Times best-sellers. His first book was rejected 31 times by publishers. What do critics know?
Miss Megoo (Megumi Mesaku)
Plays to a Mafia & Fluxy Rock steady Riddim
The marketing gurus say the secret to success is getting your music out there and promoting it for all it's worth. However, for the indie artist, a lot of the promotion will be undertaken by themselves. Some of this will be through social media via pictures and videos on platforms like Instagram and YouTube. If you have a following then showcasing your music at gigs is another possibility. You can also send demos to radio stations and record labels but it is hard to stand out from the crowd.
However, one of the oldest tried and tested methods to get close to the public and possible passing influencers is performing on the street or busking. You may think this is the last resort but, some of the music world’s biggest stars started off performing on the street and busking.
Ed Sheeran one of the world's best selling artists began by sleeping on couches of friends and busking on the London underground (metro) before gaining the attention of an influencer.
While at university, Tracy Chapman would sing in the sought after Harvard Square that required a permit to perform there. A fellow student Brian Koppelman brought her to the attention of his father who ran a record label. That was the break she needed and she was eventually signed by Elektra Records and the rest is history.
Before Beale Street Blues Boy became “B.B. King” he started off just as a wannabe kid playing the guitar on the streets of Mississippi for some spare change. King would eventually perform all over America gaining fans wherever he went and become one of the greatest blues guitarists of all time.
So, street performing or busking can deliver, if you are lucky.
In many cities, street performers are seen as a tourist attraction and when it comes to street musicians and singers there are some exceptional artists out there. However, the reasons for being a street musician can be varied:
Musicians just starting out looking for a break
Established musicians who still like street performing
Music students wanting to raise a bit of extra cash
Backpacking musicians wanting to subsidise their trips
and many other reasons. With technology shrinking equipment, street performers can now have surprisingly good backing and PA with them which allows a better overall experience for the public. Even the payment of gratuities has not been left behind in the technological revolution. With the use of POS (point of sale) machines or dedicated text or phone numbers used by the street musicians or buskers for the public to make donations.
Street performing goes back hundreds of years but in the 21st century, it is still relevant. A good street performer will be captured on many mobile phones. The images or videos uploaded to platforms like Instagram and YouTube where they could be shared over and over again. The street performer can now be a YouTube star by capturing the public's imagination and so use this to their benefit.
So the next time you pass a street performer you may be looking at a star of the future. Ed Sheeran, Tracy Chapman and B.B. King are testaments to that.
"So is the album concept a thing of the past?"
The way consumers listen and buy music has changed. There are so many platforms like Spotify, iTunes and Deezer available for downloading and streaming music. Although CDs are clinging on to existence and there is a revival of vinyl, digital listening is now the norm. With albums, consumers can now listen and purchase on a track by track basis. What does that mean for us creators of music?
Albums and CDs
There was a time when an album could be sold off the back of a hit single from the album meaning the other tracks did not necessarily have to be of the same quality. It was quite common for some tracks to be 'filler' tracks i.e. they would not stand on their own as singles. However, often, this did not stop the album from being in demand.
Nowadays, the digital platforms list albums by tracks. The consumer can listen to individual tracks and purchase the tracks they like without purchasing the whole album. So is the album concept a thing of the past? Well, an album is still recognised in the industry as having intrinsic value. There is still recognition by the top award organisations and even having an album nominated gives the artist tangible benefits.
However, for the typical indie artist trying to get their music out there, track by track purchase means that for the production of an album there is a greater burden on production and song quality. Unless the album is a concept album where each track has a part to play in the unfolding of the concept and therefore need not be capable of standing alone, each album track now has to be seen as a potential single. This means that as an artist or producer you really need to take a view on the return on investment of time and money in the production of an album.
Many commentators state that for success and growing your fan base getting content out there should be the main objective. So is taking 18 months to put an album together really worth the effort? Many artists recognizing the continued status of an album, especially if you are a touring artist, have gone down the road of EPs. This can make a lot of sense as producing four or five tracks is a lot quicker than a full album.
An EP or full album is always a great basis for a tour or launch event and a great addition to the merchandise table.
At the end of the day, the decision whether to produce an album depends on where you are in your journey and the resources available in respect of time and money.
The options are definitely worth looking at. Is it better to produce a single every month and keep your fan base engaged? Is an EP every six months better than an album every eighteen months?
In this new consumer-driven industry the market is now track based. The consumer can now make their own albums with the advent of playlists. Playlist curators now hold some sway on platforms especially those with large followings. Although artists also have this facility using services like Spotify for Artists.
Albums still have a place and I don't think they will disappear. They are a means of telling a bigger story and maybe this is how creators of music need to adapt them. After all, nobody would buy just one chapter of a novel and even if they could, hopefully, that would lead to the purchase of the remainder of the work.
... a butterfly flapping its wings in Brazil can cause a hurricane in Texas
I'm starting off a little deep with this post. Chaos Theory and The Butterfly Effect so bear with me.
According to Wikipedia Chaos Theory is:
... a branch of mathematics focusing on the behaviour of dynamical systems...
... At any given time, a dynamical system has a state...
... The butterfly effect describes how a small change in one state can result in large differences in a later state, e.g. a butterfly flapping its wings in Brazil can cause a hurricane in Texas.I am definitely not going any deeper other than to say I've always been interested in this particular theory because, in my view, it goes a little way to underpinning philosophical statements like, 'what goes around comes around' and 'everyone can make a difference'. It would seem to suggest that small actions can indeed lead to greater outcomes. So as an individual, whose is part of the world socio-economic system, maybe I can take some small action that one day may lead to something substantial.
Besides the butterfly effect, I was always struck by how, whenever there was a catastrophe of some sort, there was always a story of how someone's bad luck or good fortune was the result of a specific decision they had made. For example, missing a flight, changing flights, arriving early or arriving late just everyday decisions. So it would seem that every decision we make has an impact.
This thought led to a songwriting idea and led me to write the song 'Every Decision'. Here are the lyrics from the bridge:
Every decision that I make still shapes my destiny
Will today by the day things change maybe I’ll finally live my dreams
Every decision that I make what will they mean for me
Live today like it’s the only day I’ll see how life turns out for me
Soon to be released
Although the butterfly effect, mathematically relates to certain types of systems, the concept of small actions leading to greater outcomes is something that exists in many cultures. When songwriting, I do find that one idea can lead to another with the connections not obvious to me but I'm still happy to have found the lyrics.
So I have learnt not to force the process if things aren't going well with the song. Sometimes I just leave the song and do something else and somehow the next line pops into my head when I least expect it.
The butterfly effect is something that gives me encouragement when songwriting. I know to just take one small action whether it is writing the title, writing the keyword of the song anything to set the songwriting process in motion and leave it at that. Knowing that something more substantial will come about eventually. It may not turn out to be what I want but I can make that decision when the time comes.
So ending on a philosophical note, maybe the butterfly effect is something to recognise in all aspects of life. Take that small step, take that first action and who knows where it may lead.
I hope 2019 will be a year of great music, success, health, peace and love for everyone.
Last year was a year of change from a personal perspective and reggae also gained some formal acknowledgement.
For me, I decided I wanted to spend more time on music so made some decisions that allowed me to achieve this. As an indie, as I have said before, there are so many hats that need to be worn. This makes time management so important so having more time has really helped. This is a decision we all have to make at some time. So you need to ask yourself 'do you really love making music'.
In April I released 'Warrior' which reached number one in Trend Cty Radio Top 40 charts voted for by listeners
I decided that I wanted to add something extra to my releases and the best way to achieve this was by collaboration. To give the songs more individuality I felt using different vocalists was the best way forward. I could still create the sound I wanted but have the vocalist add their own creativity to the mix.
I had a song that did well in a songwriting competition that I never got round to recording and felt this was the time. It ended up as an RnB track entitled 'Unattainable'
It featured Tony Mac on vocals who did a great job adding his own bit of magic to the track.
Autumn / Winter 2018
After the collaboration on unattainable, which worked out well. I continued on the follow-up single 'ONE' with a collaboration with Jackie Scales. I was looking for a vocalist who could give the vocals an urban feel and Jackie did a great job. This was something I could not have achieved if I had voiced the song myself.
This was also the time where I had to make a decision about this blog. I had toyed with it but not put in the effort. However, I decided it was a great platform to say what I wanted to say and hopefully engage with likeminded music lovers. So let me know what you think.
Then in November Reggae was added to a list of international cultural treasures by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation). In UNESCO's opinion reggae music's
"contribution to international discourse on issues of injustice, resistance, love and humanity underscores the dynamics of the element as being at once cerebral, socio-political, sensual and spiritual".
UNESCO also added: "The basic social functions of the music - as a vehicle for social commentary, a cathartic practice, and a means of praising God - have not changed, and the music continues to act as a voice for all."
For those of us who love reggae music, this was a long overdue recognition, but great to see nonetheless.
So, the year ended with another song in the pipeline. This is another collaboration and should be released the end of January or the beginning of February 2019. More details to follow with an interview with the featured vocalist.
Keep reading this blog and all will be revealed soon.
I hope 2019 turns out to be a great year for reggae music and also for you personally.
As an indie, you have probably listened to successful artists and wondered what is so special about what some of them do. You have heard plenty of great songs by unknown artists that are much better. The truth is unless you are really lucky, it's all about marketing and promotion. Your music needs to be found and heard by your prospective fans so that you can build your fan base and get noticed by the right people.
To be found you need to market your music which means connecting with listeners who may turn into fans. One way is to engage the services of specialist music marketing companies if you have the budget. Otherwise, there are things that you can do to self promote your music.
Before starting out on self-promotion you need to have a theme or musical story which will be consistent across the platforms you use. This will enable you to start to establish a recognizable brand that you can cultivate to help you stand out from the crowd. So focus on these two things:
What is unique about you or your music? This is what sets you apart from others in your genre.
The uniqueness factor should be authentic. To cultivate this and for it to be something that fans can relate to, it should be authentic. It is easier to maintain consistency across platforms and continue the story if it is real.
Once you have the story you want to tell you now have the basis of your brand. A visual logo helps to translate this idea or feeling and helps brand recognition and brand building.
Your Musician Website
In order to maximise your marketing effort, you need somewhere that is home base. Somewhere to drive traffic to, somewhere you control. Having your musician website is the ideal focal point. This is where you can have exclusive content, sell your music or merchandise and most importantly build your fanbase by growing your email list. Your email list is a direct route of communication to your fans and can be much more personal than other forms of communication.
Make Music Videos
Firstly, It is now an inescapable fact that in this one click world that visual content is king. In the world of the scrolling screen having visual content will vastly increase the chances of engagement compared with a text link. Secondly, this is a great way to define your brand and set you apart from the competition. It doesn't need to be a big financial investment there are services that offer affordable visuals, for example, rotorvideos that use clips and your own music to create high-quality videos.
Set Up Your Own Video Channel
Youtube is still one of the biggest databases in the world and still the go-to platform for music. If you reach a certain level of subscribers then revenue sharing becomes possible. Having your own channel is a great way of having somewhere to direct your fans and share your videos. It also makes it easier to subscribe and engage with the channels of influencers in your niche.
Engage With Influencers
As well as engaging with fans engaging with influencers could take your following and visibility to another level. For your niche, do a search for the top 10 channels or pages and starting engaging by adding value by giving constructive comment. Something more than just 'awesome' or 'nice song'. By adding something meaningful this will attract the notice of other commenters and the influencer who will be tempted to check out your content which may lead to more views, shares and other engagement.
Paying to gain reach, when you have a product to sell, is something that is going to become standard on many platforms. Facebook, in particular, has already changed its algorithm to make it difficult for 'Pages' to have any worthwhile reach without 'boosting' a post.
Depending on your expertise in using music promotion apps or platforms, you may feel that it is more effective to engage marketing professionals. There are many music promotion services out there so do your research. They need to be offering something more than ' I have 1 million followers'. So what! None of them may like your music. So look out for these points.
What are the artist reviews saying about their services? Are there any independent reviews?
What are they offering other than tweeting, posting to their followers? For example, interviews, blog or magazine placement, playlisting etc.
Are any placements permanent?
What platforms will their music promotion cover?
What is their reach, national or global and where is their main catchment?
Can they offer a targeted promotion for your genre?
Is the music promotion campaign organic (Important!)
Having the above in place will get you off to a good start but will still need plenty of hard work and perseverance. But if you believe in your music you will succeed.
Jah9 Born Janine Cunningham, from Falmouth, Trelawny, Jamaica. She grew up in a family where the deeper meanings and injustices of life could be reasoned and this aided her inner growth.
Her father was a preacher and her mother a social worker. She subsequently moved to Kingston and at the University of the West Indies, her exposure to the teachings of Rastafari and roots reggae dub music was the catalyst for her to take the next step in her music career. Janine adopted her childhood nickname, Jah9, as she learnt the real significance of the word “Jah” and the number “9” (the symbol of creation and womb of the universe, divine completeness, universal love).
Her music career began to take shape driven by her spirituality and her own 'Jazz on Dub' style of reggae. With assistance and guidance from keyboardist Sheldon Bernard, the legendary Beres Hammond, and producer Donovan Bennett she released her first singles. This led to her debut album entitled “New Name” which was produced by Rory ‘Stone Love’ Gilligan.
'We Ready Fi Di Feeling"
The song immediately presents celestial like horns calling for the attention of the listener and Jah 9 gets straight to the point from the first line 'Tell me what you ready for' and then the song goes straight into the chorus laying down the core message for the listener.
'We ready fi di feeling no'
'We never gonna be let down no'
'We ready fi go seal it no'
This immediately sets a positive vibe drawing the listener in who is then primed for Jah9 to then expand on the message.
The lyrics set out and reason the challenges and strengths that can be experienced before you can be a soldier to 'Battle for a Brighter Day'. Jah9 drives the sentiment with a genuine quality that makes the listener feel these are not just lyrics but a heartfelt call to action. The driving riddim helps to underpin this call to action and Jah9 uses the energy of the track in her vocals so that the lyrics feel meaningful even before you absorb the message behind them.
Jah9's love of dub is reflected in the production. Mainly drum and bass with some colour by the piano and Hammond sounding organ give a platform and space for Jah9's lyrics to be clearly heard and not clash with the riddim. This style is reminiscent of dub instrumentals from the seventies and eighties like Bunny Lee's Aggrovators but the electronic bass gives the riddim a modern feel.
This is a song that I would listen to with no distractions so that I could fully absorb the lyrics. You need to play it several times to capture the essence and meaning of the individual lines. Jah9 does not pad out this song all the lyrics are meant to impart knowledge or enlighten. For fans of Jah9 and fans of conscious reggae, this song delivers the content and elements the listener would expect to find.
A conscious song, listen to clear your mind and focus on your potential so that you can be 'ready fi di feeling'.
So, finally it's official, reggae is a global phenomenon "worthy of protecting and promoting".
UNESCO Announcement (youtube video)
Reggae has been added to a list of international cultural treasures by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) The UNESCO committees meet annually to evaluate nominations and decide whether or not to inscribe them on the list, which began in 2008.
Many of us will be wondering what took them so long as we have been preaching that reggae is the voice of the people for many years.
Click to tweet image
In UNESCO's opinion reggae music's
"contribution to international discourse on issues of injustice, resistance, love and humanity underscores the dynamics of the element as being at once cerebral, socio-political, sensual and spiritual". I think what they mean is reggae is the voice of the people and from its creation to the current day stands for inequality and injustice. Peace, love, overstanding and Jah Rastafari!
UNESCO also added: "The basic social functions of the music - as a vehicle for social commentary, a cathartic practice, and a means of praising God - have not changed, and the music continues to act as a voice for all."
Jamaica can be truly proud of this formal recognition, Olivia Grange, Jamaica's Culture Minister said "Reggae is uniquely Jamaican," "It is a music that we have created that has penetrated all corners of the world."
She also added "This is a historic day. We are very, very happy," "Anywhere you go and say you're from Jamaica, they answer 'Bob Marley'."
For all the praises that the Jamaican government has now showered on reggae music, I hope this also translates into tangible support for the industry and the artists themselves. Many of whom could use some funding.
The music grew from the inequalities that existed in the 1960s in Jamaica and became a vehicle to express these issues. Many of the foundation reggae artists are no longer with us but their legacy truly leaves on.
Although reggae now has sub-genres like dub, dancehall and lovers rock. Conscious roots reggae is still at the heart of reggae's DNA.
This is because the world still has many issues to resolve and many people are touched by these issues one way or another. So when the lyrics and music of reggae speak to them there is a genuine connection. That is what has made reggae unique, it is GENUINE. When reggae songs of unity, equality and peace are created, people know that this is not a 'joke ting' reggae was born with the intention to be the voice of the unheard and bring these matters out into the open.
As issues of social injustice are not likely to end any time soon, conscious reggae is still relevant now and will be in the future. To me, after nearly 50 years, UNESCO's inclusion of reggae in its list is a statement that the ideals that conscious reggae supports are "worthy of protecting and promoting". I hope this is recognized globally and nationally.
BBC 1Xtra reggae presenter Dave Rodigan said "it (reggae) speaks out for the underprivileged, it speaks out against social injustice. Reggae music is the original rebels' music immortalised by Bob Marley at the Wailers."
As mentioned before, many reggae artists have left their legacy on the history of reggae music, but Bob Marley took the exposure of reggae music to another level. As both Jamaica's culture minister, Olivia Grange and David Rodigan hinted, Bob Marley is synonymous with reggae the world over.
In 2016 Bob Dylan won the Nobel Prize for Literature. It was awarded to Dylan for "having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition" If Bob Marley was alive today I think he would have also have been awarded the prize as his legacy mirrors reggae's contribution to the world.
As UNESCO stated, "The basic social functions of the music - as a vehicle for social commentary, a cathartic practice, and a means of praising God - have not changed, and the music continues to act as a voice for all."
Amen to that.